Achieving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

Although nearly one fourth of global CO2-emissions are caused by the transport sector, its effects cannot be reduced to impacts on climate change. Other sustainability problems induced by the transport sector include air pollution, noise and accidents. At the same time mobility has become a basic human need and there is a strong connection between economic development and the transport sector. These effects are especially relevant in urban areas. Nowadays half of the world’s population resides in cities and until the year 2050 this share is expected to rise to 70 %. Besides, cities today already account for nearly two thirds of global energy consumption and for more than 70 % of global CO2-emissions. Thus, this study focuses on sustainability issues in urban transport. Special attention is given to the situation in developing and emerging countries.